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River level monitoring with IoT

利用物联网技术,可以远程监测河流和河流的水位. 物联网允许您远程监控多个地点的河流水位, and the data can be transmitted back wirelessly in real-time. 在这篇博文中,81818威尼斯将介绍监测河流水位所需的不同组件和传感器.

Libelium Smart Cities
An ultrasonic sensor fitted to the Libelium Plug&Sense

用物联网测量河流水位最常用的三种传感器是超声波, radar and depth sensors. In this post, we are going to focus on the use of the ultrasonic sensor.

To provide a simple explanation, we have broken the solution into Sensors, Network and Cloud.

  • Sensors. 
    • Libelium Plug&Sense (Smart Water Xtreme or Smart Cities), with the Ultrasonic Sensor (Maxbotix MB7040). A radar sensor can be used in place of the ultrasonic sensor, with the added benefit of increased accuracy and range.
    • Milesight EM500-UDL sensors incorporate a Maxbotix sensor, 19,000mAh battery and LoRaWAN. IP67传感器部署速度快,适用于恶劣环境.
  • Network. The Libelium Plug&Sense supports LoRa, 3G/4G, Sigfox, WiFi and Zigbee/XBee. 对于偏远地区,也可以选择使用罗拉卫星网关.
  • Cloud. A range of cloud platforms is supported. The most common platforms that we work with include Microsoft Azure, AWS, and custom web applications and conventional database systems.

Sensors

Libelium Plug&Sense sensor node allows you to connect a variety of sensors (up to six).

For this scenario, we will be connecting the Maxbotix ultrasonic sensor. You may also want to include temperature, humidity and pressure, a weather station, and even a water-flow meter for river applications.

An ultrasonic 传感器的工作原理是向物体发出声音,并检测声音的反射. 然后传感器测量每个点之间的时间,以确定传感器和被测量对象之间的距离. The sound emitted by the sensor is at a high frequency, inaudible to the human ear, but it allows for a focused ‘beam’ (42KHz).

Maxbotix I2CXL可以在10米范围内探测到物体的距离, with a 1cm granularity.

How do I power the sensor?

The Libelium Plug&Sense包括一个内置的6000mA-H电池和一个外部太阳能电池板的支持. 电池和可再生能源的使用使得传感器节点可以部署在偏远的环境中.

Network

Smart Water
The Libelium Plug & Sense Smart Water拥有数十个传感器来检测化学物质、浑浊度和金属的存在.

Libelium Plug支持LoRa、WiFi、3G/4G和Sigfox等无线技术 & Sense.  灵活的选项范围允许您选择正确的无线技术将数据发送回您的系统或应用服务器. For very remote locations, 如LoRa(由节点支持)和LoRa卫星网关等技术允许在世界任何位置进行水监测!

Cloud

来自传感器的数据(一旦传输)需要进行处理和存储. The use of cloud platforms such as Microsoft Azure is perfect for IoT. 然而,该平台支持向Azure、AWS和熟悉的应用/数据库服务器发送数据. 一旦进入云端,您就可以开发额外的功能,如警报和通知(i.e. 如河水水位超过某一指定水位,或有上升/下降的显著趋势).

Remote water level monitoring solution

传感器节点连接到河流结构,如桥梁或安装在需要监控的河流附近的杆子上. 超声波传感器连接到节点,并安装在水体上方. 此时,传感器将测量自身与水体之间的距离.

如果你知道在这一点上河流的深度-任何增加或减少传感器值(i.e., 25cm) would indicate a reduction in water levels, while any increase (+15cm) would suggest an increase in water levels.

Ultrasonic Probe for River Monitoring
该节点安装在桥上,超声波传感器指向河流. 传感器测量传感器与河流之间的距离,精度为1厘米. These measurements are then used to assess the height of the river. The sensors work at a range of up to 7.6m (10m in the extended version). Data is then transmitted using LoRa/4G/3G/WiFi/Sigfox.

Sampling Intervals

The sensor node (Libelium Plug&Sense) will then transmit this measurement back to the cloud platform. Measurement intervals can be as little as a few seconds, but a practical range would be every 15 minutes. 对于风险较高的河流或需要预先进行洪水探测的地方,你可能想要每分钟测量水位.

更激进的采样间隔的唯一缺点是传感器节点的电池寿命.  更多的测量意味着更多的电力消耗——如果传感器节点是由电池和太阳能供电,这是一个重要的考虑因素.

Alert and notifications

一旦数据在云平台上,就可以开发如下的应用程序:

  • Visualise the water-level data on a dashboard.
  • Send text messages when water levels exceed a given value.
  • 当水位以给定的梯度上升时,生成警报(文本或电子邮件).
  • 当超过阈值时,通过Slack、Microsoft Teams或WhatsApp发送消息.
  • 将报告与天气数据相结合,以了解与水位和天气相关的相关性和风险因素.

Early warning flood monitoring

不难看出,远程水位监测也可以用于洪水监测和防洪场景:

  • 传感器可以部署在整个河流或河网的长剖面(i.e. lower, middle and upper courses).
  • 物联网传感器可以监测整个网络中的河流、湖泊和溪流的水位.
  • River sensors can be combined with weather stations to monitor rainfall.
  • 在整个网络中,河流水位的上升速度可以实时监测.

Flow-rate monitoring

利用雷达平面微波技术监测河流流速和流量是可能的, with doppler radar technology.

River flow / streamflow monitoring

When level sensors are combined with flow sensors, it is possible to calculate the volume of water flowing down a river. Monitoring river flow is covered in the following article.

Digital Twins – Rivers

Digital Twins 能否利用传感器产生的数据建立河流系统的详细模型. 物联网技术与数据分析相结合,可以成为数字孪生解决方案的基础, machine learning, artificial intelligence (AI) and visualisation tools.

Digital Twins can incorporate additional sensors into their modelling:

  • Soil moisture sensors at different depths allow you to monitor the status of the water table.
  • Weather stations allow accurate weather data analysis such as rainfall, pressure, temperature, wind and solar radiation.
  • External data sources such as topographic and terrain data.

Data visualisation and reporting

从物联网传感器收集的数据自然可以用于详细的数据分析和报告. Depending on the choice of platform, 数据可以带入通用的数据库平台,如Microsoft SQL Server或MySQL. 然后,可以使用Power BI、Tableau和Zoho Analytics等工具将数据可视化. For more simple use-cases, data can be downloaded in CSV or Excel format.

Sensor summary

  • River level sensor – Ultrasonic, radar and pressure sensors.
  • Weather stations – Rainfall, wind, solar radiation, pressure and temperature.
  • Turbidity, ORP, Dissolved Oxygen
  • Soil moisture sensors – available at different depths
  • River flow and velocity sensors – Radar/Doppler sensors

What else can I monitor?

In addition to water levels, we can monitor a wide range of parameters associated with water, such as pH, ORP, Dissolved Oxygen, BOD/COD and conductivity. To learn more, review the following blog posts:

Conclusion

物联网是一种以高精度方式远程监测河流水位的优秀解决方案. Ultrasonic sensors and the Libelium Plug&Sense提供了经过现场验证的可靠解决方案,支持一系列通信技术.

More information

If you would like to learn more about our products and services, request pricing, or discuss a project requirement - you can MTG using the details below. Alternatively, you can e-mail sales@mtg.im for more information.

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Joe Hughes is the CEO of Manx Technology Group. Joe has a background in software development, information security, networks, datacentres and enterprise IT.
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